AMT – automatic manual transmission – Clutch less

AMT – automatic manual transmission – Clutch less. Guys in the previous article their was a lot of discussion over the automatic manual transmission (AMT).So what I decided is to give a article regarding this technology,this article gives a knowledge about this technology in easy words with a deep meaning. You know what guys, basically this technology evolved as a result of reduction of cost as compared to the automatic transmission and to get the same fuel efficiency as that in the manually geared automobiles.

AMT – automatic manual transmission – Clutch less

Now moving on to what basically it is,so in short we can say that AMT is a electro-hydraulic mechanism basically designed for automating manual transmission.

AMT automatic manual transmission Clutch less 300x243 AMT   automatic manual transmission   Clutch less

AMT – automatic manual transmission – Clutch less

AMT is based basically on a electronic control unit and a hydraulic system that govern the clutch use and the gear shifting. It basically permits the driver to change the gear without the use of clutch.

The basic 3 functions which are performed are-

  • · Opening and closing of clutch.
  • · Operation of gears.
  • · Controlling the choice of transmission(mode of changing gears).

And this all is governed by the hydraulic actuators, controlled by the electro hydraulic valves.

The basic outcome of the AMT technology is that it it reduces the emission of CO2. Mechatronic is basically the latest generation of this technology. AMT (automatic manual transmission) gives a especial feature to combine the Electronic controls with the hydraulic systems in the single unit.

AMT – automatic manual transmission is also known as the semi automatic transmission.

The basic advantage is that it gives more direct contact of engine and the wheels thus it is used where the high performance is needed.

OPERATION - AMT – automatic manual transmission – Clutch less

Basically the gear stick in such systems is different then the traditional ones. But the gear lever is the same. In few cars using this the gear stick can only move forward or backward to shift the gears.Their is no use of the H pattern. In Bugatti veyron such system is used.

While the formula 1(F1) or the Ferrari uses the paddle shifters in which we need to press right and left paddles of the staring to change from high to low gears or visa versa.

Sensors are there which predict the direction of shift.

The main emphasis of the systemliesin the fact that the electrical equipment can react much faster then human also without the intervention thus making the performance a much better one.

Hope u like the article the next time it will be a much more interesting topic so stay tuned.Suggestions are always greeted.


Maruti introducing a clutchless car

Its been a while that I was not able to update with my article. But the reason was that I was in search of a new and a fresh topic. And what I found was amazing car THAT WILL BE introduced by MARUTI SUZUKI In the DELHI AUTO EXPO.

Maruti introducing a clutchless car

Maruti Suzuki is the leading car manufacturer of Indian automobile world, and to keep up their triumph over others they are coming out with one more technology of AMT(Automatic Manual Transmission). Though the automatic transmission is not new in the automobile world but maruti Suzuki in itself to introduce automatic transmission in the year 1987.
The AMT is used in F1 cars but on the small cars this technology is used the first time…!
Maruti has brought in a new technology to use the manual gears like automatic transmission without having the involvement of clutch. Now the technology used here is known as the automatic manual transmission. AUTOMATIC MANUAL TRANSMISSION(AMT)- the AMT technology gives 5% more mileage then the automatized transmission system.

Introduced in its global hatchback and making its world debut in delhi expo it is learnt that it is new offering celerio. Though many companies have tried to make such use of technology(i.e AMT) but have failed to do so due to some or the other reasons. Now the biggest advantage of this technology is that,it is giving the same fuel efficiency,as well as the cost is same. Though there is a bit of hassle regarding the cost,but certainly it will be costlier then the manually geared ones and cheaper then the fully automatic ones. “It gives the comfort of automatic transmission and the fuel efficiency of the manually transmitted cars”.this was the saying of a high authority of maruti. He also added that that customers can change gear like automatic transmitted but the cost will be same as that of manually transmitted. It is expected to have a K-series engine also used in wagonR A-star.with 1 ltr capacity.with fuel efficiency of 20km/l.

Maruti introducing a clutchless car

Maruti introducing a clutchless car 300x189 Maruti introducing a clutchless car

Maruti introducing a clutchless car


International Atomic Energy Agency

International Atomic Energy Agency. The IAEA serves as an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear technology and nuclear power worldwide. IAEA was established in 1957 and has its headquarters in Vienna, Austria. The IAEA has two “Regional Safeguards Offices” which are located in Toronto (Canada) and in Tokyo (Japan) and it also has two “liaison offices” which are located in New York City (USA) and in Geneva (Switzerland). In addition, the IAEA has three laboratories located in Vienna and Seibersdorf, Austria, and in Monaco.

1 International Atomic Energy Agency

History of International Atomic Energy Agency:

1) In 1953, the President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, proposed the creation of an international body for regulating and promoting the peaceful use of atomic power.
2) During 1956, an IAEA Statute Conference was held to draft the founding documents for the IAEA, and the IAEA Statute was completed at a conference in 1957.
3)From IAEA’s commencement in 1957, it has been operated and controlled by many Director- Generals viz.
o Sterling Cole (1957-1961)
o Sigvard Eklund (1961-1981)
o Hans Blix (1981-1997)
o Mohamed ElBarade (1997-2009)
Yukiya Amano(2009 to Present)
4)Both the IAEA and its then Director General, ElBaradei, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. In ElBaradei’s acceptance speech in Oslo, he stated that only 1% of the money spent on developing new weapons would be enough to feed the entire world.

Mission of International Atomic Energy Agency:

The IAEA has following missions :-
1)Peaceful Uses :- Promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy by its member states.
2)Safeguards :- Implementing safeguards to verify that nuclear energy is not used for military purposes.
3)Nuclear Safety :- Promoting high standards for nuclear safety.

Structure of International Atomic Energy Agency:

International Atomic Energy Agency 300x159 International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency

The IAEA’s objective is guided by the needs of its member states. The IAEA is an autonomous organization which does much of its work with the Security Council and it also reports to UN General Assembly.
It has three main bodies :-
1)Policy Formulators: This body is responsible for making policies and comprises of

BOG IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency

a)Board of Governors :

It consists of 22 member states elected by the General Assembly and at least 10 member states nominated by the outgoing board. The outgoing board designates the 10 member states who are most advanced in atomic energy technology. The 22 elected members must also represent a stipulated geographic diversity.
The Board gives advice and recommendation to the General Assembly on IAEA’s activities and budget and also appoints Director-General with the approval of General Assembly but the chairman for the board is elected by the board itself.

general conference logo International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency

b)The General Assembly:

It comprises of all 151 member states and meets every year in September to approve the budget passed on from the Board of Governors. The General Assembly elects a president at each annual meeting so as to facilitate an organized meeting and this president serves only for that particular session for which he is being appointed.
The General Assembly of IAEA is a forum for debates on current issues and for making policies and it also resembles with the General Assembly of United Nations.

c)The Member States : Total Member States =160 (As of November 2013)

Here is the list of its Member States along with their Membership Year :-
• 1957: Afghanistan, Albania, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Monaco, Morocco, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Socialist Federal Rep. of Yugoslavia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela, Viet Nam
• 1958: Belgium, Ecuador, Finland, Iran, Luxembourg, Mexico, Philippines, Sudan
• 1959: Iraq
• 1960: Chile, Colombia, Ghana, Senegal
• 1961: Lebanon, Mali, Democratic Republic of the Congo
• 1962: Liberia, Saudi Arabia
• 1963: Algeria, Bolivia, Côte d’Ivoire, Libya, Syria, Uruguay
• 1964: Cameroon, Gabon, Kuwait, Nigeria
• 1965: Costa Rica, Cyprus, Jamaica, Kenya, Madagascar
• 1966: Jordan, Panama
• 1967: Sierra Leone, Singapore, Uganda
• 1968: Liechtenstein
• 1969: Malaysia, Niger, Zambia
• 1970: Ireland
• 1972: Bangladesh
• 1973: Mongolia
• 1974: Mauritius
• 1976: Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Tanzania
• 1977: Nicaragua
• 1983: Namibia
• 1984: China
• 1986: Zimbabwe
• 1992: Estonia, Slovenia
• 1993: Armenia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Slovakia
• 1994: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kazakhstan, Marshall Islands, Uzbekistan, Yemen
• 1995: Bosnia and Herzegovina
• 1996: Georgia
• 1997: Latvia, Malta, Moldova
• 1998: Burkina Faso
• 1999: Angola, Benin
• 2000: Tajikistan
• 2001: Azerbaijan, Central African Republic, Serbia
• 2002: Eritrea, Botswana
• 2003: Honduras, Seychelles, Kyrgyzstan
• 2004: Mauritania
• 2005: Chad
• 2006: Belize, Malawi, Montenegro, Mozambique
• 2007: Cabo Verde
• 2008: Nepal, Palau
• 2009: Bahrain, Burundi, Cambodia, Congo, Lesotho, Oman
• 2011: Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Tonga
• 2012: Dominica, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago
• 2013: BahamasBrunei Darussalam, San Marino, Swaziland

The Member states shown in Bold letters i.e Cabo Verde ,Tonga, Bahamas, Brunei Darussalam has been approved by The General Assembly but will take effect after legal documentation with IAEA.

2)Secretariat : The IAEA Secretariat – comprises a team of 2300 professional who belongs to multiple disciplines and support staff from more than 100 countries having professional ,managerial,technical, and scientific background.

3)Management Team: The IAEA Secretariat is dependent on the guidance and leadership of its Director General and six Deputy Directors General who head the major departments.

The IAEA’s Departments - International Atomic Energy Agency

1 Nuclear Applications
2) Nuclear Energy
3) Safety & Security
4) Safeguards
5) Technical Cooperation

I hope this article will prove to be a useful one.
Any suggestions regarding improvement will always be appreciated.
So do Comment below.

Fast Multiplication Trick – Short Cut method

Fast Multiplication Trick – Short Cut method. Hello friends, Today, we are going to discuss about some multiplication tricks Short cut method. Look, everybody knows How to multiply two-digit numerals but in competitive exams what matters the most is time. So if you are doing it in less time then only you will qualify or get good marks in the exams.

2 Fast Multiplication Trick   Short Cut method

Fast Multiplication Trick – Short Cut method

So to elaborate my point further let’s take some examples:
Now, just observe the above examples and instead of multiplying these numeral conventionally, Take them as if :

Example and steps for Fast Multiplication Trick – Short Cut method

e.g. 1) You are recalling the table of 34 up to 12.

For that, just follow these steps:
a) Multiply the number (other than the number which is close to 10)by 10 i.e. 34*10=340
b) Now recall the table of 34 two more times and for that just multiply 34 by 2 i.e. 34*2=68
c) And finally add the result obtained in both the above steps 340+68=408 and you’re done.

Similarly for the second
e.g. a) 25*10=250
b) 25*4=100
c) On adding 250 and 100 you’ll get 350 as simple as that.

So you can use such types of tricks while multiplying any 2-digit numeral within the range
of 11-14 with any other 2-digit numeral. I hope this article will help you a lot. And we will discuss many more such type of tricks in my subsequent articles. For any suggestions and expressing your views, do comment below.

Fast Multiplication Trick – Short Cut method – Vedic Maths

Fast Multiplication Trick – Short Cut method – Vedic Maths. Hi guys, in my previous article of Multiplication trick we have discussed about multiplication of 2-digit numerals out of which one numeral can be any 2-digit numeral & other one should be in the range of 11-14. Now we will discuss about 2-digit numerals in which both the numerals are close to 100(& also less than 100).

Example and steps for Fast Multiplication Trick – Short Cut method – Vedic Maths

To understand that, let us take an example :.
1) 96*90
Now subtract 100 from both the numerals,so after doing that we’ll get -4 and -10.
Then follow the steps as depicted in the figure.

m2 300x240 Fast Multiplication Trick   Short Cut method   Vedic Maths

So our result will be 8640.

2) 85*86:

Now what if the multiplication generates a to understand that let’s take another example

m21 300x273 Fast Multiplication Trick   Short Cut method   Vedic Maths


Fast Multiplication Trick – Short Cut method – Vedic Maths

In this case 2 is generated as a carry, so on adding it to 71 we will get 73 & our result will be 7310. I hope you will be benefited by these tricks. For expressing your views, do comment below.

List of all the RBI Governors

List of all the RBI Governors. A bank whose responsibility is to guide and regulate the banking system of the country is known as its central bank. India’s central bank is Reserve bank of India(RBI). RBI was established on 1 April 1935 with its central office in Calcutta which is later on shifted permanently to Mumbai in 1937. RBI was nationalized in 1949. From its commencement in 1935 to till date it has been operated by many governors.Here, I am presenting you the list of governors of RBI with their tenure that will be very helpful from entrance exam perspective (specially in banking exams).One more important point you should keep in mind is that 1st governor of RBI was Sir Osborne smith and 1st Indian governor of RBI was Sir C.D. Deshmukh (3rd RBI Governor).

List of all the RBI Governors

List of all the RBI Governors 300x267 List of all the RBI Governors
List of all the RBI Governors

List of all the RBI Governors

Name of Governor and their Tenure
1. Sir Osborne Smith (1 April 1935 – 30 June 1937)
2. Sir James Braid Taylor (1 July 1937 – 17 February 1943)
3. Sir C. D. Deshmukh (11 August 1943 – 30 June 1949)
4. Sir Benegal Rama Rau (1 July 1949 – 14January 1957)
5. K. G. Ambegaonkar (14 February 1957 –28 February 1957)
6. H. V. R. Iyengar (1 March 1957 – 28 February 1962)
7. P. C. Bhattacharya (1 March 1962 – 30 June 1967)
8. L. K. Jha (1 July 1967 – 3 May 1970)
9. B. N. Adarkar (4 May 1970 – 15 June 1970)
10. S. Jagannathan (16 June 1970 – 19 May 1975)
11. N. C. Sen Gupta (19 May 1975 – 19 August 1975)
12. K. R. Puri (20 August 1975 – 2 May 1977)
13. M. Narasimham (2 May 1977 – 30 November 1977)
14. Dr. I. G. Patel (1 December 1977 – 15 September 1982)
15. Dr. Manmohan Singh (16 September 1982 – 14 January 1985)
16. A. Ghosh (15 January 1985 – 4 February 1985)
17. R. N. Malhotra (4 February 1985 – 22 December 1990)
18. S. Venkitaramanan (22 December 1990 – 21 December 1992)
19. Dr. C. Rangarajan (22 December 1992 – 21 November 1997)
20. Dr. Bimal Jalan (22 November 1997 – 6 September 2003)
21. Dr. Y . V. Reddy (6 September 2003 – 5 September 2008)
22. Dr. D. Subbarao (6 September 2008 – 4th September 2013)
23. Raghu Ram Rajan (4th September 2013 – Present)

Two Stroke engine – Petrol and diesel

Two Stroke engine – Petrol and diesel. Guys, basically a stroke means the linear distance the piston moves between the top dead center (T.D.C)and the bottom dead center(B.D.C).so as the name suggest “2-stroke” means that the piston moves two times In between T.B.C and B.D.C. In other words we can say that a engine in which 2 strokes are carried out by the piston can be termed as a two stroke engine.

  • The basic concept of a two stroke engine is that all the essential operations are carried out in one revolution of crank shaft or two strokes of the piston.

Classification of two stroke engine

  • 2 stroke petrol engine
  • 2 stroke diesel engine

Basic components of a two stroke petrol engine

The figure shows all the components of petrol engine, with labels indicated.

Two Stroke engine – Petrol and diesel

Basic components of a two stroke diesel engine

The figure shows all the components of diesel engine, with labels indicated.

two Stroke engine – diesel

Difference between Two Stroke engine – Petrol and diesel


Petrol engine

Diesel engine
In a petrol engine we use spark plug for spark ignition While in the diesel engine we use fuel injector and thus accomplish a task of compression ignition
Petrol engine uses a carburetor the main
function of which is to properly mix the charge (air + fuel).
While there is no such facility in a diesel
In petrol engine charge in the form of air +fuel In diesel engine the charge intake is only
in form of air
A petrol engine works on Otto cycle A diesel  engine works on diesel cycle
Operates on constant volume process Operates on constant pressure process
Uses gasoline as a fuel or petrol alternatively Uses diesel as fuel
Better efficiency for same compression
Low efficiency
Cheaper engine. Costlier engine
Less maintenance More maintenance
Easy to start due to lower
compression ratio
Difficult to start


Here is the Diagram showing Otto Cycle of Petrol Engine and Diesel Cycle of Diesel Engine:

Otto Cycle:

OTTO CYCLE : two Stroke engine – Petrol and diesel

Diesel Cycle:

DIESEL CYCLE – two Stroke engine – Petrol and diesel

General Working Of Two Stroke engine – Petrol and diesel

Two Stroke engine – Petrol and diesel

In a two stroke engine,the inlet ,transfer and exhaust ports are covered and uncovered. By the movement of piston so according to the opening and closing of exhaust , inlet and transfer port following process es take place in a two stroke engine.


When the piston is nearer to the B.D.C,the transfer and exhaust port open up.the charge is slightly compressed due to which it enters the transport port and due to which it drives out the exhaust gases in the cylinder through the exhaust port.



As the piston now moves upwards  the exhaust port and the transfer port are been closed and thus the charge is been trapped and the charge inside the cylinder is the same time due to crank movement the suction poet opens and  due to the partial vacuum created due to compression ,the fresh charge is forced inside.


As the piston reaches T.D.C a height intensity  spark  ignites the spark and thus start the combustion.due to this height pressure is generated inside the cylinder and it is forced about 80% downward stroke the exhaust gases move out through the exhaust port.and now  the gases again enter the cylinder in form of new charge due to pressure difference this process is called “charging”.

These were the basic process that takes place in both diesel and the petrol engines,but in the diesel engine we use  fuel injector instead of spark plug.

SPARK PLUG – two Stroke engine – Petrol and diesel
FUEL INJECTOR – two Stroke engine – Petrol and diesel

Port timing diagram for  petrol engine

After studying the working we need to look at the port timing,which refers to the relative opening and closing of the ports with respective to the crank rotation.


“What makes a racing engine so powerful and fast? Well it is the small details that make the difference. Probably, huge amounts of money invested in R&D; it’s not just on the engine design, but also on the manufacturing of the engine. Many racing engine manufacturers use special equipment to make their parts, like laser cutters and special high precision balancing equipment that your ordinary tool-and-die shop simply doesn’t have access to. The process control necessary to make a piston and sleeve assembly that will seal properly at high temperatures and last while being used in an engine capable of turning 30,000 RPM, is not easy. One single out of spec part could cause the engine to fail prematurely. Simple numbers like engine displacement and the color of the heat sink head are not going to tell you if the engine is any good or not. Even the manufacturer’s suggested HP has to be taken with a grain of salt. Engine “A” can crank out 1HP… under what conditions? What temperatures? How long? At what RPM? These are all blurry claims. It’s best to ask around your local track and choose a manufacturer with a history of good, reliable, and easy to tune engine designs. It’s always better to ask around than to waste your hard earned money on the flavor of the month engine manufacturer. Hey, with basic machining tools and a CAD model, anyone can make an engine. It takes years of experience and machine know-how to build a great engine! Make no mistake, some of the sport engines from the manufacturer “B” will burn the barn doors from the turbo model of brand “A”.”

Tips for better running of two stroke engines-

For smooth running of the engine we can use engines with less peak horse power.another method would be to adopt a suitable transmission system according to the needs.another implementation can be  by doing proper tuning  of pipe designs in order to help the 2 stroke engine.

Where are two-cycle engines used?

Two-cycle engines are inexpensive to build and operate when compared to four-cycle engines. They are lighter in weight and they can also produce a higher power-to-weight ratio. For these reasons, two-cycle engines are very useful in applications such as chainsaws, Weed-eaters, outboards, lawnmowers and motorcycles, to name just a few. Two-cycle engines are also easier to start in cold temperatures. Part of this may be due to their design and the lack of an oil sump. This is a reason why these engines are also commonly used in snowmobiles and snow blowers.

Some advantages and disadvantages of two-cycle engines

Because two-cycle engines can effectively double the number of power strokes per unit time when compared to four-cycle engines, power output is increased. However, it does not increase by a factor of two. The outputs of two-cycle engines range from only 20 to 60 percent above those of equivalent-size four-cycle units. This lower than expected increase is a result of the poorer than ideal charging efficiency, or in other words, incomplete filling of the cylinder volume with fresh fuel and air. There is also a major disadvantage in this power transfer scenario. The higher frequency of combustion events in the two-cycle engine results in higher average heat transfer rates from the hot burned gases to the motor’s combustion chamber walls. Higher temperatures and higher thermal stresses in the cylinder head (especially on the piston crown) result. Traditional two-cycle engines are also not highly efficient because a scavenging effect.

How are two-cycle engines lubricated?

Two-cycle motors are considered total-loss type lubricating systems. Because the crankcase is part of the intake process, it cannot act as an oil sump as is found on four-cycle engines. Lubricating traditional two-cycle engines is done by mixing the oil with the fuel. The oil is burned upon combustion of the air/fuel mixture. Direct Injection engines are different because the fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber while the oil is injected directly into the crankcase. This process is efficient because the fuel is injected after the exhaust port closes, and therefore more complete combustion of fuel occurs and more power is developed. Direct injection engines have a higher power density than traditional two-cycle engines. Because the oil is directly injected into the crankcase, less oil is necessary and lower oil consumption results (80:1 range). Direct Injection motors have higher combustion temperatures, often up to 120F. They also require more lubricity than traditional two-cycle motors.




Application And Example Of two-Stroke Engine

Application And Example Of two-Stroke Engine. Guys in the last article I tried my best to make you aware about the working of the two stroke engines. But in the real world the need of the hour is not only to understand the theory but also the practical application of the theory which you know. So now keeping that in mind I am going to list the applications of the two stroke engine and one by one we will understand the specifications of thee vehicles.

Application And Example Of two-Stroke Engine

Application And Example Of 2 Stroke Engine5 300x300 Application And Example Of two Stroke Engine

Application And Example Of two-Stroke Engine

The two stroke engine was a very popular component in the vehicle assembly in 19th-20th century in motorcycles and small-engine devices.

  • String trimmer-
Application And Example Of 2 Stroke Engine4 Application And Example Of two Stroke Engine
String Trimmer – Application And Example Of two-Stroke Engine

It is known as a weed eater by other name. it is basically a tool used for cutting tools. String trimmers powered by an internal combustion engine have the engine on the opposite end of the shaft from the cutting head .the gasoline engine is of about 21cc and is two stroke most of time. Most trimmers use two stroke engines and require gasoline mixed with oil. But the disadvantage is that it pollutes heavily.

  • internal combustion engine (ICE) powered bicycles-

it is a type of bicycling which uses  a engine and transmission system for the purpose of ease in paddling. Small two-stroke, bolt-on gasoline bike motors and adapter kits for bicycles had a brief surge in popularity in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the U.S. and Canada. These engine kits were designed or marketed by both small and large companies, including Bike Bug, Taps Spitz.

Application And Example Of 2 Stroke Engine1 Application And Example Of two Stroke Engine
Application And Example Of two-Stroke Engine

It uses various types of engines like from 50-80cc.

Guys Yamaha is one of the popular company which made bikes and other vehicles using two stroke engine.

Road bikes-

  • Yamaha RX-Z
Application And Example Of 2 Stroke Engine2 300x235 Application And Example Of two Stroke Engine
Yamaha RX-Z- Application And Example Of two-Stroke Engine
  • Production-1987-2011
  • Type-naked bike
  • Engine-133 cc (8.1 cu in) 2-stroke, bore 56×54 mm, compression: 7.0:1
  • Power-20 bhp (15 kW) @ 8,500 rpm
  • Torque-1.85 kgf (4.1 lbf) @ 7,500 rpm
  • Brakes-disc and drum
  • Many Malaysian movies have used these bikes.

Some owners of the RX-Z motorcycles had problems during take-off because the engine tends to stall when an inexperienced rider tries to take off in the first gear.

Off road bikes-

  • Yamaha RT-200
Application And Example Of 2 Stroke Engine3 Application And Example Of two Stroke Engine
Application And Example Of two-Stroke Engine


  • Displacement: 195cc
  • Bore and stroke: 66X57mm
  • Transmission: 6 speed
  • Starting: Primary Kick
  • Ignition: C.D.I.
  • Brakes: front and rear disc ( 1989 and newer)
  • Compression ratio: 6.4:1
  • Horsepower:33@8500rpm
  • Torque: 23.5 N-m (17.4 lb-ft)@7500 rpm

Stay tuned for more such auto-blasting notes.the next one will be of the most important   and the most interesting aspect the 4 stroke engine.

Suggestions And Compliments are always welcome.


How to fix problem when .exe file has stopped working in window 7

Don’t worry just implement following steps and you are done.
Steps are:
1)Go to control panel->System and security
2)Now click advanced system settings.
3)Now system properties dialog box will appear then go to advanced tab ->performance ->settings.
4)Now a performance options dialog box will appear then you have to go to Data Execution prevention(DEP).
5)After doing so, enable Turn on DEP for all programs and services except those I select.
6)Then click Add and choose(browse) the file that you want to fix.
7)Then click Apply and Ok.
That’s it.

Banking Sector Full Forms ( Abbreviation)

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet A

ADB: Asian Development Bank
ADR: American Depositary Receipt
AIDWA: All India Democratic Woman’s Association
AITUC: All India Trade Union Congress
ALM: Asset Liability Management
AMFI: Association of Mutual Funds in India
APEC: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
APL: Above Poverty Line
APM: Administered Pricing Mechanism

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet B

BIFR: Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction
BCBS: Basel committee for Banking Supervision
BCSBI: Banking Codes and Standards Board of India
BIS: Bureau of Indian Standards
BOLT: BSE On-Line Trading (System)
BOT: Build, Operate and Transfer
BPL: Below Poverty Line
BPO: Business Process Outsourcing
BSBDA :Basic Savings Bank Deposit Account

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet C

CA: Chartered Accountant
CABE: Central Advisory Board of Education
CACP: Commission of Agriculture Cost and Price
C & AG: Comptroller & Auditor General
CAMELS: C – Capital adequacy, A – Asset quality, M – Management quality, E – Earnings, L – Liquidity, S – Sensitivity to Market Risk
CAPART: Council for People’s Action and Advancement of Rural Technology
CAR: Capital adequacy ratio
CARE: Credit Analysis & Research Ltd.
CBS: Core banking solution
CCI: Competition Commission of India
CCIL: Clearing Corporation of India limited
CCEA – Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs
CDSL: Central Securities Depository Limited
CECA: Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement
CEPA: Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement
CIBIL: Credit Information Bureau (India) Ltd
CII: Confederation of Indian Industry
CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States
CHOGM: Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting
CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
CITU: Centre Of Indian Trade Unions
CMP: Common Minimum Programme
CPI (UNME): The Consumer Price Index for Urban Non-Manual Employees.
CPI (AL): Consumer Price Index for Agricultural Laboures.
CPI (IW): Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers
CPI (RL): Consumer Price Index for Rural Labourers
CRAR: Capital to Risk (Weighted) Assets Ratio
CRISIL: Credit Rating Information Services of India Limited
CRR: Cash Reserve Ratio
CSIR: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
CST: Central Sales Tax
CTT: Commodities Transaction Tax

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet D

DA : Dearness Allowance; Daily Allowance
DEAF: Depositor Education and Awareness Fund
DMIC: Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor
DPEP: District Primary Education Programme
DTAA: Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement
DTC : Direct Tax Code

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet E

ECA: Essential Commodity Act
ECB: External Commercial Borrowings
ECS: Electronic clearing system
EDUSAT: Education Satellite
EEE: Exempt Exempt Exempt
EEFC Accounts: Exchange Earners Foreign Currency Account
EET: Exempt Exempt Taxation
EFA: Education for All
EPF: Employees Provident Fund
EPFO: Employees Provident Fund Organization
EFSF:European Financial Stability Facility
EFT: Electronic fund transfer
EGoM: Empowered Group of Ministers
EMI: Equated Monthly Installment
EMS: European Monetary System
ERNET: Educational and Research Network
ESA: European Space Agency
ESCAP: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific
ESMA: Essential Services Maintenance Act
ESOP: Employee Stock Option Programme
EU: European Union

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet F

FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation
FCCB: Foreign Currency Convertible Bond
FCNR: Foreign Currency (Non-Resident) Accounts Scheme
FDI: Foreign Direct Investment
FEMA: Foreign Exchange Management Act
FERA: Foreign Exchange Regulations Act
FICCI: Federation of Indian Chambers Of Commerce and Industry
FII: Foreign Institutional Investors
FIPB: Foreign Investment Promotion Board (Of India)
FMCG: Fast Moving Consumer Goods
FPO: Follow on Public Offer
FRBM: Fiscal Responsibility And Budget Management
FRBMA: Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act
FSLRC: Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission
FSSA: Food Safety And Standards Authority (Of India)
FTA: Free Trade Area

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet G

GAAR:General anti avoidance rule
GATT: General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade
GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
GDR: Global Depositary Receipt
GEF: Global Environment Fund
GIC: General Insurance Corporation
GIRO:Government Internal Revenue Order
GNP: Gross National Product
GST: Goods and Service Tax

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet H

HDFC: Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited
HDI: Human Development Index
HSBC: Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited
HUDCO: Housing And Urban Development Corporation

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet I

IAAI: International Airport Authority Of India
IAAS: Indian Audit and Accounts Service
IADF: International Agricultural Development Fund
IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency
IASB: The International Accounting Standards Board
IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction And Development
ICAI: Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research
ICCW: Indian Council for Child Welfare
ICDS: Integrated Child Development Service
ICMR: Indian Council of Medical Research
ICICI: Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India
ICOR: Incremental capital output ratio
ICRA: Investment information and Credit Rating Agency
ICRC: International Committee of Red Cross
IDA: International Development Association
IDR: Indian Depository Receipts
IES: Indian Economic Service
IEX: Indian Energy Exchange
IFRS: International Financial Reporting Standard
IFSC: Indian financial system code
IFTU: International Federation of Trade Unions
IFWJ: Indian Federation of Working Journalists
IIP: The Index of Industrial Production
IIPA: Indian Institute of Public Administration
IISS: International Institute of Strategic Studies
ILO: International Labour Organisation
IMF: International Monetary Fund
IMO: International Maritime Organisation
IDR: Indian Depository Receipts
IDBI: Industrial Development Bank of India
IMF: International monetary fund
IMRB: Indian Market Research Bureau
INMARSAT: International Maritime Satellite Organisation
INTERPOL: International Police Organisation
INTUC: Indian National Trade Union Congress
IOC: International Olympic Committee
IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPEC: International Programme on Elimination Of Child Labour
IPO: Initial public offer
IPR: Intellectual Property Right
IRDA: Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority
IREP: Integrated Rural Energy Planning
ISO: International Standardisation Organisation
ISS: International Space Station
ITDC: Indian Tourism Development Corporation
ITEs: Intra-Group Transactions and Exposures
ITO: International Trade Organisation; Income-Tax Officer
ITU: International Tele-Communication Union

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet J

JNNURM: Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet K

KPO: Knowledge Process Outsourcing
KYC: Know your customer

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet L

LAF: Liquidity Adjustment Facility
LDC: Least Developed Countries
LIBOR: London Inter Bank Offer Rate
LIC: Life Insurance Corporation (Of India)
LLP: Limited Liability Partnership

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet M

MAT: Minimum Alternative Tax
MAIT: Manufacturers’ Association for Information Technology
MCAP: Market capitalization / Mid cap
MDG: Millennium development goals
MEP: Minimum Export Price
MFA: Multi-Fibre Agreement
MFI: Micro finance institution
MFIN: Micro finance institution network
MFN: Most Favoured Nation
MIBOR: Mumbai Interbank offer rate
MIN: Mutual fund identification no.
MNC: Multi-National Corporation
MRTPC: Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission
MRTS: Mass Rapid Transit System
MSME: Micro Small and Medium Enterprises
MSF-Marginal Standing Facility
MSP: Minimum support price
MTO: Multilateral Trade Organisation

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet N

NABARD: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development.
NAEP: National Adult Education Programme
NAFED: National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd
NAFTA: North America Free Trade Agreement
NAM: Non-Aligned Movement
NAMA: Non-Agriculture Market Access
NASDAQ: National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NAV: Net Asset Value
NBFC: Non Banking Finance Companies
NCAER: National Council Of Applied Economic Research
NCERT: National Council Of Education Research And Training
NCPCR: National Commission for Protection of Child Rights
NCTC – National Counter-Terrorism Centre
NDC: National Development Council
NEFT: National Electronic Fund Transfer
NEGP: National E-Governance Plan
NEP: National Education Policy
NFO: New Fund Offers
NHAI: National Highways Authority of India
NHDP: National Highways Development Project
NHRC: National Human Rights Commission
NIFT: National Institute of Fashion Technology
NIO: National Institute of Oceanography
NLMA: National Literacy Mission Authority
NMDC: National Mineral Development Corporation
NNP: Net National Production
NPA: Non Performing Asset
NPR: National Population Register
NSE: National Stock Exchange
NSDL: National Securities Depository Limited
NSE: National Stock Exchange
NSFR: Net Stable Funding Ratio
NSG: Nuclear Suppliers Group
NSSO: National Sample Survey Organization
NTPC: National Thermal Power Corporation

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet O

ODA: Official Development Assistance
OECD: Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development
OGL: Open General License
OIC: Organisation of Islamic Countries
OIL: Oil India Limited
OMCS: Oil Marketing Companies
ONGC: Oil And Natural Gas Commission
OPEC: Organisation Of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OSCE: Organisation For Security And Cooperation In Europe

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet P

PAC: Public Accounts Committee
PAN: Permanent Account Number (Of Income-Tax)
PATA: Pacific-Asia Travel Association
PCI: Per capita income
PDS: Public Distribution System
PIL: Public Interest Litigation
PIO: Persons Of Indian Origin
PN: Participatory Note
PoP: Point Of Purchase
PPF: Public Provident Fund
PPP: Public private partnership / Purchasing power parity
PTA: Preferential Trade Area
PURA: Providing urban amenities in rural areas

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet Q

QIB: Qualified Institutional Buyer
QIP: Qualified Institutional Placement
QR: Quantitative Restriction

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet R

RBI: Reserve Bank Of India
RIDF: Rural infrastructure development fund
RRB: Regional Rural Bank
RRPI: Rural Retail Price Index
RTGS: Real Time Gross Settlement System

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet S

SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Co-Operation
SAFTA: South Asian Free Trade Area
SAIL: Steel Authority of India Limited
SAPTA: SAARC Preferential Trading Agreement
SARFAESI ACT: The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002
SCO: Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
SCOPE: Standing Conference On Public Enterprises
SDR: Special Drawing Rights
SEBI: Securities And Exchange Board Of India
SEZ: Special Economic Zone
SIDBI: Small Industries Development Bank of India
SEWA: Self employed woman’s association
SLR: Statutory Liquidity Ratio
STT: Securities Transaction Tax
SWIFT: Society for Worldwide Financial Telecommunications

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet T

TARC:Tax Administration Reform Commission
TDS: Tax Deduction at Source
TIEA: Tax Information Exchange Agreement
TIFR: Tata Institute Of Fundamental Research
TIN: Tax Information Network
TINXSYS:Tax Information Exchange System
TISCO: Tata Iron and Steel Company
TPDS: Targeted Public Distribution System
TRAI: Telecom Regulatory Authority Of India
TRIMS: Trade Related Investment Measures
TRIPS: Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
TRYSEM: Training Of Rural Youth For Self Employment

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet U

UN: United Nations
UNCTAD: United Nations Conference On Trade And Development
UNDP: United Nations Development Programme
UNEF: United Nations Emergency Force
UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organisation
UNFCCC: United nation framework convention on climate change
UNFPO: United Nations Fund For Population Activities
UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner For Refugees
UNHRC: United Nations Human Rights Commission
UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s (Emergency) Fund
UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
UNRRA: United Nations Relief And Rehabilitation Administration

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet V

VAT: Value-Added Tax
VDIS: Voluntary Disclosure Of Income Scheme
VRS: Voluntary Retirement Scheme
VVPAT:Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail’

Banking full form (abbreviation) – Alphabet W

WEF: World Economic Forum
WFP: World Food Programme
WHO: World Health Organization
WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organisation